Abraham Maslow developed the Hierarchy of Needs model in 1940-50s USA,
and the Hierarchy of Needs theory remains valid today for understanding
human motivation, management training, and personal development.
Indeed, Maslow’s ideas surrounding the Hierarchy of Needs concerning the
responsibility of employers to provide a workplace environment that encourages
and enables employees to fulfil their own unique potential (self-actualization)
are today more relevant than ever.
Abraham Maslow’s book Motivation and Personality, published in 1954
(second edition 1970) introduced the Hierarchy of Needs, and Maslow extended
his ideas in other work, notably his later book Toward A Psychology Of Being,
a significant and relevant commentary, which has been revised in recent times
by Richard Lowry, who is in his own right a leading academic in the field of
1. Biological and Physiological needs – air, food, drink, shelter, warmth, sex, sleep, etc.
2. Safety needs – protection from elements, security, order, law, limits, stability, etc.
3. Belongingness and Love needs – work group, family, affection, relationships, etc.
4. Esteem needs – self-esteem, achievement, mastery, independence, status, dominance, prestige, managerial responsibility, etc.
5. Self-Actualization needs – realising personal potential, self-fulfillment, seeking personal growth and peak experiences.
6. Aesthetic needs – appreciation and search for beauty, balance, form, etc.
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